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Natural Gas


General Objectives:

To provide a comprehensive review of the techniques involved in natural gas production, processing and transport, complemented with a picture of natural gas valorization channels.

Specific Objectives:

At the end of training the trainees will be able to:
  • Learn about fundamentals of natural gas composition, production and field processing;
  • Comprehend technical issues and specific constraints of natural gas transport and storage;
  • Review the various end-user markets available for valorizing natural gas;
  • Grasp key natural gas chain economic issues.


CONTEÚDOS

CONTENTS:

Module I – Natural gas: types and production techniques
  • Types and characteristics of natural gas fields – Production techniques;
  • Different types of natural gas (condensate, wet or dry gas) and characterization parameters;
  • Constitution of natural gas well effluent, properties and specific hazards.
  • Case of associated gases: recovery techniques, characteristics, composition.
Module II – End uses of natural gas – Main quality requirements
  • End uses of natural gases: fuel (domestic and industrial uses), conversion into other energy types (electricity production and cogeneration), automotive fuel (natural gas for vehicles – NGV and conversion into liquid automotive fuels GTL), chemical valorization;
  • Quality requirements for commercial natural gases and associated products (ethane, LPG, condensates) – Examples of quality standards.
Module III – Natural gas processing
  • Gas dehydration (drying) and hydrate formation inhibition;
  • System behavior – Moisture content of a saturated gas;
  • Applications: moisture content of different gases of various compositions;
  • Hydrate formation inhibition by injection of inhibitors: MeOH, MEG, DEG, LDHI;
  • Gas dehydration: TEG units, molecular sieves;
  • Application: summary design of TEG unit;
  • Gas sweetening: removal of acid components (H2S and/or CO2);
  • Different techniques applicable for gas sweetening;
  • Chemical solvent processes – Amine units (MEA, DEA, DGA, MDEA…);
  • Physical solvent processes;
  • Hybrid (physic-chemical) solvent processes;
  • Overview of other techniques;
  • Conversion of H2S: sulfur production (CLAUS process) and tail gas processing;
  • Application: summary design of an amine unit;
  • Natural gas Liquids (NGL) extraction (removal of heavy components);
  • External refrigeration loop;
  • Joule-Thomson expansion;
  • Turbo-expander;
  • Application: calculation of cryogenic loop used for NGL extraction;
  • Examples of gas field development schemes;
  • Gas fields development options: onshore or offshore processing, single phase or multiphase export pipes (sea lines), “wet” or “dry” development;
  • Other treatments: mercury removal, conversion or adsorption of mercaptans (RSH).
Module IV – Transport of natural gas in liquid phase – LNG option
  • Liquefaction processes: principle, typical operating conditions, technology.
  • LNG tanks: Single or double or full containment (self standing, membrane) – Hazards;
  • LNG transport: LNG carriers (MOSS spheres, membrane…), export and receiving terminals;
  • LNG regasification at the receiving terminals, options for refrigeration duty recovery.
Module V – Transport and storage of natural gas in gas phase
  • Gas pipes: technology, capacities, equipment, recompression units, operating conditions;
  • Underground storage (old reservoirs, aquifers, salt domes…) – Required treatments at outlet.
Module VI – Natural gas economics
  • Resources, production and markets;
  • Natural gas marketing: competition of other energy sources and consequences on gas contracts (prices and duration), cost of transport and its impact on the structure of the gas chain;
  • Future of the Natural gas.
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Duração: 40 Horas
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