Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

General Objectives:

To provide a comprehensive technical and economical review of the Liquefied Natural Gas industry.

Specific Objectives:

At the end of training the trainees will be able:
  • To review the structure of an LNG chain and look over the world map of LNG plants;
  • To understand main LNG physical properties and specificities;
  • To assess LNG facilities hazards and HSE issues, along with risk mitigation and prevention techniques;
  • To grasp main liquefaction process’s operating principles, conditions and constraints;
  • To glance at the technology of equipment used in the LNG industry;
  • To grasp the essence of LNG markets and contracts.



Module I – The LNG world
  • The LNG chain – Order of magnitude and trends – Location of main plants worldwide;
  • Base load LNG plants – Peak shaving LNG plants – Small LNG plants for LNG fueled vehicles;
  • Receiving terminals – Regasification techniques – Satellite regasification techniques.
Module II – LNG specific properties and associated hazards
  • Physical properties: Liquid-Vapor equilibrium, density, ratio of vapor methane / LNG, heat of vaporization, heat of combustion;
  • Safety aspects: Flash Point, Fire Point, Auto-ignition Point, Minimum Spark Energy, Flammability Limits, Deflagration, LNG Vaporization, Rapid Phase Transition (RPT), Radiation Levels, Stratification / Roll-over, Sloshing, LNG clouds ignition, Asphyxiation risks, Cryogenic liquids jets, Piping behavior.
Module III – LNG hazard prevention and mitigation measures
  • LNG spillage control at Design stage and in Operation;
  • LNG clouds control in operation;
  • LNG fires control at Design stage and in Operation.
Module IV – Liquefaction and regasification processes
  • Feed pre-treatment: sweetening, dehydration, NGL extraction, Hg and aromatics removal;
  • Different liquefaction processes: Pure Component Refrigerants, Pure Component(s) and Mixed Refrigerant(s), Mixed Refrigerants;
  • Peak Shaving simplified scheme;
  • Regasification process.
Module V – LNG storage, loading / offloading and transport
  • LNG tanks: Single or Double or Full Containment (self standing, membrane) – Hazards;
  • Jetty head, Jetty trestle, harbor;
  • LNG Carriers: common features, technology, cargo operations, safety systems.
Module VI – Technology of LNG specific equipment
  • LNG cryogenic heat exchangers: Spiral Wound Heat Exchangers, Aluminum Brazed Heat Exchangers;
  • Technology of the Cryogenic Compressors and their drivers (Gas Turbines);
  • LNG Vaporizers: Open Rack Vaporizers (ORV), Submerged Combustion Vaporizers (SCV) – Safety and Environmental aspects;
  • Submerged LNG pumps: in-tank retractable pumps, cargo pumps, HP canned send out pumps;
  • Liquid cryogenic turbo-expanders, Cryogenic Valves;
  • Cryogenic personnel protection items.
Module VII – LNG plant operation
  • Day to day activities in an LNG plant – Experience of some plants.
Module VIII – LNG trends – Research and new developments
  • LNG trends since 70´s – Equipment and concept development – Future.
Module IX – LNG economic aspects
  • Gas markets: natural gas reserves and production, worldwide gas demands distribution, international natural gas trade;
  • LNG contracts: specificities of LNG contracts, pricing, shipping contracts;
  • LNG markets trends.
High Skills - Formação e Consultoria
Angola | Cabo- Verde | Moçambique | Portugal | S. Tomé e Princípe

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Duração: 40 Horas
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